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10/19/16: A sentence regarding Flublok Quadrivalent has been added to the "Quadrivalent vs Trivalent" section.
12/7/16: In Table 2, the recommended age in for FluLaval Quadrivalent was changed to ≥6 months (from ≥3 years).
Annual vaccination against influenza A and B viruses is recommended for everyone ≥6 months old without a specific contraindication.1
EFFECTIVENESS — The effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing influenza illness depends on the match between the vaccine and circulating strains. Vaccine effectiveness is highest (50-60%) when the match is close, but even when the match is poor, vaccination has been shown to reduce the risk of laboratory-confirmed influenza, hospitalization for influenza, and death.2,3 For the 2015-2016 influenza season, the adjusted overall effectiveness of the seasonal influenza vaccine against influenza A and B viruses was 47%.4
Quadrivalent vs Trivalent – All of the trivalent and quadrivalent seasonal influenza vaccines available in the... more
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- EA Belongia et al. Variable influenza vaccine effectiveness by subtype: a systematic review and meta-analysis of test-negative design studies. Lancet Infect Dis 2016; 16:942.
- M Darvishian et al. Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in community-dwelling elderly people: a meta-analysis of test-negative design case-control studies. Lancet Infect Dis 2014; 14:1228.
- B Flannery and J Chung. Influenza vaccine effectiveness, including LAIV vs IIV in children and adolescents, US Flu VE Network, 2015-16. Available at: www.cdc.gov. Accessed September 29, 2016.
- T Heikkinen et al. Impact of influenza B lineage-level mismatch between trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines and circulating viruses, 1999-2012. Clin Infect Dis 2014; 59:1519.
- R Hartvickson et al. Non-inferiority of mammalian cell-derived quadrivalent subunit influenza virus vaccines compared to trivalent subunit influenza virus vaccines in healthy children: a phase III randomized, multicenter, double-blind clinical trial. Int J Infect Dis 2015; 41:65.
- AS Monto et al. Comparative efficacy of inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccines. N Engl J Med 2009; 361:1260.
- CS Ambrose et al. The relative efficacy of trivalent live attenuated and inactivated influenza vaccines in children and adults. Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2011; 5:67.
- CJ Phillips et al. Comparison of the effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine and live, attenuated influenza vaccine in preventing influenza-like illness among US military service members, 2006-2009. Clin Infect Dis 2013; 56:11.
- JR Chung et al. Seasonal effectiveness of the live attenuated and inactivated influenza vaccine. Pediatrics 2016; 137:e20153279.
- K Goodwin et al. Antibody response to influenza vaccination in the elderly: a quantitative review. Vaccine 2006; 24:1159.
- JY Song et al. Long-term immunogenicity of influenza vaccine among the elderly: risk factors for poor immune response and persistence. Vaccine 2010; 28:3929.
- J Castilla et al. Decline in influenza vaccine effectiveness with time after vaccination, Navarre, Spain, season 2011/12. Euro Surveill 2013; 18:20388.
- CA DiazGranados et al. Efficacy of high-dose versus standard-dose influenza vaccine in older adults. N Engl J Med 2014; 371:635.
- CA DiazGranados et al. Prevention of serious events in adults 65 years of age or older: a comparison between high-dose and standard-dose inactivated influenza vaccines. Vaccine 2015; 33:4988.
- CA DiazGranados et al. Efficacy and immunogenicity of high-dose influenza vaccine in older adults by age, comorbidities, and frailty. Vaccine 2015; 33:4565.
- DM Richardson et al. Comparative effectiveness of high-dose versus standard-dose influenza vaccination in community-dwelling veterans. Clin Infect Dis 2015; 61:171.
- HS Izurieta et al. Comparative effectiveness of high-dose versus standard-dose influenza vaccines in US residents aged 65 years and older from 2012 to 2013 using Medicare data: a retrospective cohort analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2015; 15:293.
- Fluad – an adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine for older adults. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2016; 58:8.
- SE Frey et al. Comparison of the safety and immunogenicity of an MF59-adjuvanted with a non-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine in elderly subjects. Vaccine 2014; 32:5027.
- PG Van Buynder et al. The comparative effectiveness of adjuvanted and unadjuvanted trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in the elderly. Vaccine 2013; 31:6122.
- S Mannino et al. Effectiveness of adjuvanted influenza vaccination in elderly subjects in northern Italy. Am J Epidemiol 2012; 176:527.
- JA Udell et al. Association between influenza vaccination and cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2013; 310:1711.
- MG Thompson et al. Effectiveness of seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine for preventing influenza virus illness among pregnant women: a population-based case-control study during the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 influenza seasons. Clin Infect Dis 2014; 58:449.
- SA Madhi et al. Influenza vaccination of pregnant women and protection of their infants. N Engl J Med 2014; 371:918.
- JC Kwong et al. Risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome after seasonal influenza vaccination and influenza health-care encounters: a self-controlled study. Lancet Infect Dis 2013; 13:769.
- LL Polakowski et al. Chart-confirmed Guillain-Barré syndrome after 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccination among the Medicare population, 2009-2010. Am J Epidemiol 2013; 178:962.
- A Des Roches et al. Egg-allergic patients can be safely vaccinated against influenza. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2012; 130:1213.