|The full article is available to subscribers||Subscriber Login|
Tobacco dependence is a chronic disease that often requires pharmacological therapy, but counseling improves the effectiveness of any treatment for this indication. The greater the number of office visits and the longer the counseling time, the higher the smoking cessation rates have been.1
NICOTINE — All nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs) deliver nicotine, which acts as an agonist at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, to the central nervous system (CNS) in a lower dose and at a substantially slower rate than tobacco cigarettes. All of these products roughly double smoking cessation rates.2 Nicotine is subject to first-pass metabolism, limiting the effectiveness of oral pill formulations. Nicotine gum, lozenges and patches are available without a prescription in the US; these products appear to be... more
23. D Gonzales et al. Varenicline, an alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, vs. sustained-release bupropion and placebo for smoking cessation: Arandomized controlled trial. JAMA 2006; 296:47.
24. DE Jorenby et al. Efficacy of varenicline, an alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, vs placebo or sustained-release bupropion for smoking cessation: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2006; 296:56.
25. M Nides et al. Smoking cessation with varenicline, a selective alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor partial agonist: Results from a 7-week, randomized, placebo- and bupropion-controlled trial with 1-year follow- up. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166:1561.
41. C Cohen et al. Nicotine-associated cues maintain nicotine-seeking behavior in rats several weeks after nicotine withdrawal: Reversal by the cannabinoid (cb1) receptor antagonist, rimonabant (sr141716). Neuropsychopharmacology 2005; 30:145.