In the US, 25 states and the District of Columbia now permit some medical use of botanical marijuana (Cannabis sativa).1 It has been used for centuries to treat various ailments, but non-standardization of dosage makes available data difficult to interpret. Cannabis contains >60 pharmacologically active cannabinoids.2
Two oral prescription cannabinoids are available in the US. Dronabinol (Marinol, and generics) is a synthetic form of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis; it is classified by the DEA as a schedule III controlled substance (less potential for abuse or addiction than schedule I or II drugs; currently accepted medical use). A liquid formulation of dronabinol (Syndros) was recently approved by the FDA. Nabilone (Cesamet) is a synthetic analog of THC; it is a schedule II controlled substance...
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The FDA has approved Jentadueto XR (Boehringer Ingelheim/Lilly), a once-daily extended-release formulation of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor linagliptin and the biguanide metformin, for oral treatment of type 2 diabetes. Linagliptin and metformin have been available for years in a twice-daily immediate-release combination (Jentadueto).1 Once-daily extended-release formulations combining metformin with the DPP-4 inhibitors saxagliptin (Kombiglyze XR) and sitagliptin (Janumet XR) are also available.