The goal of drug therapy for type 2 diabetes is to achieve and maintain a near-normal glycated hemoglobin (A1C) concentration without inducing hypoglycemia; the target is generally an A1C of <7%.1 Treating to this target has been shown to prevent microvascular complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy), but whether it prevents macrovascular outcomes is unclear. An A1C target of <8% may be appropriate for older patients and those with underlying cardiovascular disease, a history of severe hypoglycemia, diabetes-related complications or comorbidities, or a long duration of disease.2,3
LIFESTYLE MODIFICATIONS — Diet, exercise, and weight loss can improve glycemic control and are recommended for all patients, but most patients with type 2 diabetes ultimately require drug therapy. In a 10-year randomized controlled trial in 5145 overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes,...
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