The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics
September 6, 2021
Treatment of Clostridioides difficile Infection
|Subscribers: Log in to read full article. Not a subscriber? Subscribe or purchase article.|
Treatment of Clostridioides difficile Infection
September 6, 2021 (Issue: 1632)Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) is the most common infectious cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea in adults. Guidelines on management of CDI have recently been updated.
- LC McDonald et al. Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children: 2017 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). Clin Infect Dis 2018; 66:e1.
- S Johnson et al. Clinical practice guideline by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA): 2021 focused update guidelines on management of Clostridioides difficile infection in adults. Clin Infect Dis 2021 June 24 (epub).
- CR Kelly et al. ACG clinical guidelines: prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of Clostridioides difficile infections. Am J Gastroenterol 2021; 116:1124.
- AD Harris et al. Electronically available comorbid conditions for risk prediction of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018; 39:297.
- MD Zilberberg et al. Development and validation of a risk score for Clostridium difficile infection in medicare beneficiaries: a population-based cohort study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2016; 64:1690.
- KW Garey et al. Meta-analysis to assess risk factors for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. J Hosp Infect 2008; 70:298.
- TJ Louie et al. Fidaxomicin preserves the intestinal microbiome during and after treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and reduces both toxin reexpression and recurrence of CDI. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 55(Suppl 2):S132.
- S Johnson et al. Vancomycin, metronidazole, or tolevamer for Clostridium difficile infection: results from two multinational, randomized, controlled trials. Clin Infect Dis 2014; 59:345.
- FA Zar et al. A comparison of vancomycin and metronidazole for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, stratified by disease severity. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 45:302.
- VW Stevens et al. Comparative effectiveness of vancomycin and metronidazole for the prevention of recurrence and death in patients with Clostridium difficile infection. JAMA Intern Med 2017; 177:546.
- Y Wang et al. Does addition of intravenous metronidazole to oral vancomycin improve outcomes in Clostridioides difficile infection? Clin Infect Dis 2020; 71:2414.
- KEE Rokas et al. The addition of intravenous metronidazole to oral vancomycin is associated with improved mortality in critically ill patients with Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Infect Dis 2015; 61:934.
- A Apisarnthanarak et al. Adjunctive intracolonic vancomycin for severe Clostridium difficile colitis: case series and review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 35:690.
- MD Neal et al. Diverting loop ileostomy and colonic lavage: an alternative to total abdominal colectomy for the treatment of severe, complicated Clostridium difficile associated disease. Ann Surg 2011; 254:423.
- F Lamontagne et al. Impact of emergency colectomy on survival of patients with fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis during an epidemic caused by a hypervirulent strain. Ann Surg 2007; 245:267.
- J Yin et al. Oral vancomycin may be associated with earlier symptom resolution than metronidazole for hospitalized children with nonsevere Clostridioides difficile infections. Open Forum Infect Dis 2019; 6:ofz492.
- J Wolf et al. Safety and efficacy of fidaxomicin and vancomycin in children and adolescents with Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection: a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, single-blind clinical trial (SUNSHINE). Clin Infect Dis 2020; 71:2581.
- DN Gerding et al. Treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46(Suppl 1):S32.
- B Guery et al. Extended-pulsed fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection in patients 60 years and older (EXTEND): a randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3b/4 trial. Lancet Infect Dis 2018; 18:296.
- OA Cornely et al. Treatment of first recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection: fidaxomicin versus vancomycin. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 55(Suppl 2):S154.
- G Major et al. Follow-on rifaximin for the prevention of recurrence following standard treatment of infection with Clostridium difficile (RAPID): a randomised placebo controlled trial. Gut 2019; 68:1224.
- E van Nood et al. Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile. N Engl J Med 2013; 368:407.
- G Cammarota et al. Randomised clinical trial: faecal microbiota transplantation by colonoscopy vs. vancomycin for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2015; 41:835.
- JR Allegretti et al. Risk factors that predict the failure of multiple fecal microbiota transplantations for Clostridioides difficile infection. Dig Dis Sci 2021; 66:213.
- MH Wilcox et al. Bezlotoxumab for prevention of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. N Engl J Med 2017; 376:305.
- Bezlotoxumab (Zinplava) for prevention of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2017; 59:49.
- NN Pettit et al. Risk factors for systemic vancomycin exposure following administration of oral vancomycin for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. Pharmacotherapy 2015; 35:119.
- FDA. Important safety alert regarding use of fecal microbiota for transplantation and risk of serious adverse reactions due to transmission of multi-drug resistant organisms. June 13, 2019. Available at: https://bit.ly/3lNJIMo. Accessed August 13, 2021.
- FDA. Update to March 12, 2020 safety alert regarding use of fecal microbiota for transplantation and risk of serious adverse events likely due to transmission of pathogenic organisms. March 13, 2020. Available at: https://bit.ly/3ltqZW7. Accessed August 13, 2021.
- FDA. Safety alert regarding use of fecal microbiota for transplantation and additional safety protections pertaining to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. March 23, 2020. Available at: https://bit.ly/3rRVOoq. Accessed August 13, 2021.
- Inhibitors and inducers of CYP enzymes and P-glycoprotein. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2020 September 10 (epub). Available at: medicalletter.org/downloads/CYP_PGP_Tables.pdf.
- RL Woosley and KA Romero. QT drugs list. Available at: www.crediblemeds.org. Accessed August 13, 2021.
- Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2006-. Fidaxomicin. [Updated 2021 May 17]. Available at: https://bit.ly/3A4My3p. Accessed August 13, 2021.
- O Sheehy et al. The use of metronidazole during pregnancy: a review of evidence. Curr Drug Saf 2015; 10:170.
- KL Hyrich and SMM Verstappen. Biologic therapies and pregnancy: the story so far. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2014; 53:1377.
The Medical Letter is a subscriber-funded nonprofit organization that publishes critical appraisals of new prescription drugs and comparative reviews of drugs for common diseases.