The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics
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1546
Adult Immunization
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The US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends routine use of the following vaccines in adults residing in the US: influenza, tetanus/diphtheria alone (Td) and in combination with acellular pertussis (Tdap), measles/mumps/rubella (MMR), varicella (VAR), herpes zoster (RZV; ZVL), human papillomavirus (HPV), and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13) and polysaccharide (PPSV23) vaccines. For adults with certain medical conditions or occupational, behavioral, or other risk factors, hepatitis A (HepA), hepatitis B (HepB), meningococcal (MenACWY; MenB), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines are also recommended.1 Recommendations for vaccination against seasonal influenza and vaccination of travelers are reviewed separately.2,3

VACCINE PREPARATIONS

Inactivated vaccines are prepared from whole or fractional antigenic components of viruses or bacteria. Fractional vaccines are usually either protein- or polysaccharide-based. Protein-based vaccines typically include subunits of microbiologic protein or inactivated bacterial toxins (toxoids). Polysaccharide-based vaccines are generally less immunogenic than protein- based vaccines; they may be conjugated to a protein to increase immune response and enhance immune memory.

Live-attenuated vaccines use a weakened form of the pathogen, which replicates after administration to induce an immune response.

Recombinant vaccines consist of genetically engineered antigens, which are typically inactivated, but can occasionally be live-attenuated.4

VACCINES

TETANUS, DIPHTHERIA, AND PERTUSSIS — Administration of a tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccine has been part of routine childhood immunization since the 1940s. For many years, however, adults were revaccinated only with inactivated adsorbed tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccine because of concerns about reactions to the previously used whole-cell pertussis vaccine. Two vaccines containing tetanus and diphtheria toxoids combined with protein components of acellular pertussis (Tdap; Adacel, Boostrix) were introduced in 2005 as a booster for adults.5

Pertussis infection can occur when vaccine-induced immunity has waned over time. Infected parents and siblings have transmitted pertussis to unimmunized and under immunized infants.

Recommendations for Use – Adults with an uncertain history of primary vaccination should receive 3 doses of a Td-containing vaccine, one of which (preferably the first) should be Tdap. The first 2 doses should be administered at least 4 weeks apart and the third dose 6-12 months after the second. A Td booster should be given every 10 years. Any adult who has never received a dose of Tdap should receive one as soon as possible, regardless of the interval since the last Td-containing vaccine.

Pregnant women should receive Tdap during each pregnancy, regardless of the interval since the last Td or Tdap vaccination, to protect the newborn against pertussis in the first months of life. The vaccine should be given during the early part of gestational weeks 27 through 36 to maximize the transfer of maternal antibodies closer to birth.6,7 Pregnant women with an uncertain or incomplete history of primary vaccination should be given 3 doses of a Td-containing vaccine, one of which should be Tdap. Women who have never received Tdap and did not receive it during pregnancy should be vaccinated immediately postpartum.

For a more detailed table, click here.

Adverse Effects – Injection-site reactions are common with administration of Td or Tdap, but they are usually mild. Fever and injection-site pain have been more frequent with Tdap than with Td. Arthus-type reactions with extensive painful swelling can occur in adults with a history of repeated vaccinations.

MEASLES, MUMPS, AND RUBELLA (MMR) — In the US, routine vaccination of children has eliminated endemic transmission of measles and rubella, and has almost eliminated mumps. Recent increases in measles cases in Europe and Southeast Asia have led to increases in imported measles cases in the US; these cases have occurred primarily in unvaccinated persons.8 Sporadic mumps outbreaks also continue to occur, even among highly vaccinated groups.9

The MMR vaccine contains live-attenuated viruses; measles and mumps viruses are both derived from chick embryo cell culture and rubella virus is derived from human diploid cell culture.

Recommendations for Use – Adults born in the US before 1957 (1970 in Canada) can be considered immune to measles, mumps, and rubella. Most other adults who lack evidence of immunity (documentation of vaccination or laboratory evidence of immunity) should receive one dose of MMR. Two doses of the vaccine, separated by at least 28 days, are recommended for adults previously vaccinated with the killed (or an unknown) measles vaccine used from 1963 to 1967 and for those without evidence of immunity who are at high risk of exposure to or transmission of measles or mumps, including students in postsecondary educational institutions, international travelers, and household contacts of immunocompromised persons.10 Healthcare workers born during or after 1957 who do not have evidence of immunity to measles and/or mumps should receive 2 doses of MMR vaccine; those who have evidence of immunity to mumps and measles, but not to rubella should receive one dose. MMR vaccination should be considered for healthcare workers born before 1957 if they do not have evidence of immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella. For control of a mumps outbreak in a setting with intense exposure, high attack rates, and evidence of ongoing transmission, one additional dose of MMR vaccine is recommended for those who previously received ≤2 doses.11

One dose of MMR vaccine should be administered to nonpregnant women of childbearing age who lack evidence of immunity to rubella. Pregnant women should not receive MMR vaccine; those who do not have evidence of immunity to rubella should receive MMR vaccine postpartum, before discharge from the healthcare facility.

Adverse Effects – Pain and erythema at the injection site, fever, rash, and transient arthralgias (in about 25% of women) are common following MMR vaccination. Few adverse events have been reported after a third dose of MMR vaccine. Anaphylactic reactions and thrombocytopenic purpura occur rarely.10

Contraindications – Because MMR is a live vaccine, it is contraindicated in pregnant women (the risk of congenital rubella syndrome from the vaccine may be only theoretical; it has not been reported among the thousands of infants born to women vaccinated inadvertently during pregnancy) and in adults with severe immunodeficiency. The vaccine should not be given to persons with a history of anaphylaxis caused by neomycin or gelatin.

VARICELLA — The varicella vaccine contains live-attenuated varicella virus. Routine childhood immunization, introduced in the US in 1995, has resulted in a sharp decline in the incidence of varicella infection in both children and adults. Primary varicella infection can be more severe in adults than in children.

Recommendations for Use – Persons born in the US before 1980 are considered immune to varicella, except for healthcare workers and pregnant women, who should be evaluated for evidence of immunity. Evidence of immunity to varicella is demonstrated by: a history of varicella or herpes zoster diagnosed by a healthcare provider, laboratory evidence of immunity (not always reliable), or documentation of vaccination. Adult immigrants newly arrived in the US from tropical countries may be susceptible to varicella. All adults without evidence of immunity should receive 2 doses of vaccine at least 4 weeks apart. Nonimmune pregnant women should receive the first dose postpartum before discharge from the healthcare facility.12 Immunity after vaccination is probably permanent in the majority of vaccinees.

Adverse Effects – Injection-site reactions such as soreness, erythema, and swelling are common in adults. Other adverse effects include fever and varicella-like rash (at the injection site or generalized, usually occurring within 2-3 weeks after vaccination). Spread of vaccine virus from healthy vaccinees who develop a varicella-like rash to susceptible contacts is rare. Recipients who have a vaccine-related rash should avoid contact with susceptible individuals who are at high risk of varicella complications, such as immunocompromised persons, pregnant women, and neonates born to nonimmune mothers.

Contraindications – Because it is a live vaccine, varicella vaccine is contraindicated in pregnant women and in persons with severe immunodeficiency. It should not be given to persons with a history of anaphylaxis caused by neomycin or gelatin.

ZOSTER — Following resolution of a primary infection, varicella-zoster virus (VZV) persists in a latent form in sensory ganglia; VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) prevents latent virus from reactivating and multiplying to cause herpes zoster. When CMI declines, as it can in older persons and those who are immunocompromised, latent VZV can reactivate and cause herpes zoster ("shingles"). About 1 million cases of shingles occur in the US every year.

Two different zoster vaccines are now FDA-licensed for use in the US: a live-attenuated vaccine (ZVL; Zostavax) and a new adjuvanted recombinant subunit vaccine (RZV; Shingrix).13 In randomized, double-blind clinical trials, ZVL significantly reduced the incidence of herpes zoster in adults 50-79 years old, but not in those ≥80 years old; its effectiveness declined sharply with age (70% at ages 50-59 years, 64% at 60-69 years, 41% at 70-79 years, 18% at ≥80 years).14,15 In a large cohort study in adults ≥50 years old, ZVL was about 68% effective in preventing herpes zoster in the first year after vaccination; efficacy decreased to 47% in the second year, and continued to decline gradually over the next 6 years to 32%.16

Although no direct comparisons are available, RZV appears to be considerably more effective than ZVL in preventing herpes zoster. In observer-blinded clinical trials in >27,000 persons, RZV was highly effective in preventing herpes zoster in all age groups, especially older persons (97% in those 50-59 and 60-69 years old and 91% in those 70-79 and ≥80 years old). The duration of protection with RZV is unknown; in persons ≥70 years old, vaccine efficacy was 85.1% in the fourth year after vaccination.17,18

Recommendations for Use – Immunocompetent adults ≥50 years old, including those with a history of herpes zoster and those who have already received ZVL, should be vaccinated with two doses of RZV (2-6 months apart). RZV should not be given <2 months after vaccination with ZVL. RZV is preferred over ZVL, but ZVL remains an alternative for immunocompetent adults ≥60 years old.19

Adverse Effects – Adverse reactions appear to be more frequent and more severe with RZV than with ZVL. Common adverse effects of RZV include myalgia (45%), fatigue (45%), fever (21%), and injection-site pain (78%), redness (38%), and swelling (26%). In clinical trials with RZV, the incidence of any grade 3 adverse event was 16.5% and the incidence of grade 3 injection-site reactions was 9.4%; the median duration of local and systemic adverse effects was 2-3 days. Injection-site reactions with ZVL are generally mild; varicella-like rash has occurred at the injection site, but is less common than with varicella vaccination.

Contraindications – Because it is a live vaccine, ZVL is contraindicated in pregnant women and in adults with severe immunodeficiency. It should not be given to persons with a history of an anaphylactic reaction to neomycin or gelatin. RZV is not contraindicated in pregnant women and immunocompromised adults, but its safety and efficacy in these populations have not yet been established.

HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV) — HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection often acquired soon after initiation of sexual activity. Although most HPV infections clear spontaneously without clinical sequelae, persistent infection with an oncogenic HPV type can cause abnormalities in the cervical epithelium that may progress to cancer. Oncogenic HPV types 16 and 18 cause about 70% of cervical cancers and about 80% of anal cancers. Non-oncogenic types 6 and 11 cause 90% of genital warts. Five additional HPV types, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, are responsible for an additional 15% of cervical cancers. These HPV types are also associated with non-anogenital cancers, particularly oropharyngeal cancers.

A recombinant 9-valent vaccine (Gardasil 9) is the only HPV vaccine available in the US. It is licensed by the FDA for use in both men and women to prevent diseases associated with HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, including genital warts and cervical, vulvar, vaginal, and anal precancerous lesions and cancer.20,21 The bivalent vaccine (Cervarix), which protected against HPV types 16 and 18, and the quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil), which protected against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, have been discontinued. Compared to the quadrivalent vaccine, the 9-valent vaccine reduced the risk of high-grade cervical, vulvar, or vaginal disease related to HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, or 58 by 97%; antibody responses to the 4 HPV types found in both vaccines were similar, as was the incidence of disease or persistent infection related to those HPV types.22

Recommendations for Use – Routine HPV vaccination is recommended for girls and boys 11-12 years old (can start at age 9). Previously unvaccinated females 15 through 26 years old and males 15 through 21 years old should receive a 3-dose series (0, 1-2, and 6 months); a 2-dose schedule (0 and 6-12 months) is recommended for those who start the series before their 15th birthday. Adults who received 1 dose or 2 doses <5 months apart before age 15 years should receive 1 additional dose. Transgender persons and men who have sex with men should be vaccinated through age 26 with a 2- or 3-dose series depending on the age at which they start the series. Immunocompromised females and males are at higher risk for HPV infection and should be vaccinated with a 3-dose series through age 26.21,23

Although the vaccine should ideally be administered before the onset of sexual activity, persons ≤26 years old who have already been exposed to HPV or diagnosed with HPV infection (based on an abnormal Pap smear or presence of genital warts) should also be vaccinated because they may not have been exposed to all the HPV types included in the vaccine. A schedule started with the bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine can be completed with the 9-valent vaccine. The duration of immunity is not known, but it appears to be at least 8-10 years; booster doses are not currently recommended.

HPV vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women due to limited data; no increase in adverse outcomes was reported among women exposed to the quadrivalent vaccine during the periconceptional period or during pregnancy.24,25

Adverse Effects – Injection-site reactions such as pain, swelling, and erythema can occur. Syncope has been reported; patients should be seated or lying down during vaccine administration and observed for 15 minutes afterwards.

PNEUMOCOCCAL — Adults with immunocompromising conditions and those ≥65 years old have an increased risk of developing invasive pneumococcal disease. Routine childhood immunization has resulted in a 90% reduction in vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease and a 50% reduction in overall disease.

Two pneumococcal vaccines are FDA-licensed for use in adults, a conjugate vaccine that contains 13 serotypes of pneumococcus (PCV13; Prevnar 13)26 and a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23; Pneumovax 23). The pneumococcal serotypes in PCV13 cause about half of the cases of invasive pneumococcal disease in immunocompromised adults; an additional one-fifth are caused by serotypes contained only in PPSV23. In a placebo-controlled trial in nearly 85,000 adults ≥65 years old (CAPITA), vaccination with PCV13 reduced first episodes of vaccine-type nonbacteremic and noninvasive community-acquired pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease by 45% and 75%, respectively.27

The serotypes in PPSV23 cause 60-76% of bacteremic pneumococcal disease.28 The vaccine is effective in preventing invasive disease, but randomized controlled trials and cohort studies in the general population and in those ≥65 years old have not consistently shown that it decreases the incidence of noninvasive pneumococcal pneumonia, and its protective effect appears to wane after 5 years.29-31

Recommendations for Use – All adults ≥65 years old should receive a one-time dose of PCV13 and one dose of PPSV23. For those who have not previously received either vaccine, PCV13 should be given first, followed at least one year later by PPSV23. Those who previously received PPSV23 should receive PCV13 at least one year after the last dose of PPSV23.32 Some Medical Letter reviewers recommend only PPSV23 for otherwise healthy adults ≥65 years old. Recommendations for vaccination of adults who are ≥65 years old or <65 years old with specific risk factors are listed in Table 3.33,34

Adverse Effects – Mild to moderate injection-site reactions, headache, fatigue, and myalgia are common with PCV13 and PPSV23.

HEPATITIS A — Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection occurs frequently in the US and is endemic in certain communities in western and southwestern states and in Alaska; the prevalence of anti-HAV antibodies ranges from about 9% in preadolescent children to about 75% in elderly adults.4 Hepatitis A vaccine (HepA), introduced in the US in 1996, is now part of routine childhood immunization. Two inactivated hepatitis A whole-virus vaccines (Vaqta, Havrix) are available in the US. A combination hepatitis A and B vaccine (HepA/HepB; Twinrix) contains the same hepatitis A component as in Havrix, but half the dose.

Recommendations for Use – HepA vaccine is recommended for adults who have a medical, occupational, or behavioral risk of infection, or who lack a risk factor but want protection. Medical indications are clotting factor disorders and chronic liver disease. Occupational indications are work with HAV in a laboratory or work with HAV-infected primates. Adults with behavioral risks are illicit (injection and non-injection) drug users and men who have sex with men. HepA vaccine is also recommended for close contacts of adopted children from countries with intermediate or high rates of HAV infection, for susceptible travelers going anywhere other than Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, or western Europe, and for those with recent exposure to HAV.

HepA vaccination in adults consists of 2 doses separated by at least 6 months. Antibodies reach protective levels 2-4 weeks after the first dose. The combination HepA/HepB vaccine should be given in 3 doses at 0, 1, and 6 months. HepA/HepB vaccine can also be given in an accelerated 4-dose schedule; the first 3 doses are given at 0, 7, and 21-30 days, and the fourth at 12 months. Patients who have received a first dose of one HepA vaccine can be given another one to complete the series. Booster doses are not recommended for immunocompetent adults who have completed a primary series.

Adverse Effects – Injection-site reactions such as pain, swelling, and erythema occur in about 60% of vaccine recipients. Systemic complaints such as malaise, lowgrade fever, and fatigue are generally mild and occur in less than 10% of vaccinees.

HEPATITIS B — The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the US is low (about 800,000-1.4 million persons). Since routine childhood immunization was introduced in 1991, the number of new cases of HBV infection has declined by 82%. In 2015, the incidence of acute HBV infection was highest among those 30-39 years old (2.6 cases/100,000 persons).35

All four hepatitis B vaccines (HepB) available in the US for use in adults contain recombinant yeast-derived hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with an immunostimulatory adjuvant. Engerix-B, Recombivax HB, and Twinrix (HepA/HepB vaccine) use aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant. Heplisav-B uses a synthetic cytosine phosphoguanine oligonucleotide (CpG 1018) adjuvant that stimulates the immune system through activation of the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) pathway.36 Engerix-B, Recombivax HB, and Twinrix are usually administered in 3 doses; Heplisav-B is given in 2 doses.37

In a randomized, observer-blinded study that compared 2 doses of Heplisav-B to 3 doses of Engerix-B, seroprotection rates were significantly higher with Heplisav-B than with Engerix-B (95.4% vs 81.3%) among nearly 6500 persons 18-70 years old. Among 961 patients with diabetes, seroprotection rates were also significantly higher with Heplisav-B (90.0% vs 65.1%). Immune responses to both vaccines were shown to decrease with age, but seroprotection rates were significantly higher with Heplisav-B in all age groups.38

Recommendations for Use – HepB vaccination is recommended for adults who have a medical, occupational, or behavioral risk of infection, or who lack a risk factor but want protection.39 Medical indications are end-stage renal disease (including hemodialysis), chronic liver disease, diabetes (particularly in persons 19-59 years old),40 or HIV infection. Occupational indications include healthcare and public safety workers with potential exposure to blood or body fluids. Adults with behavioral risks include injection drug users, persons who had sex with more than one partner in the previous 6 months or recently acquired a sexually transmitted infection, and men who have sex with men.

Other populations who should receive HepB vaccine include clients of facilities that test for and treat sexually transmitted infections, HIV, or drug abuse, residents and staff of institutions for the developmentally disabled, inmates of correctional facilities, household contacts and sex partners of persons with chronic HBV infection, and travelers to countries with intermediate or high rates of chronic HBV infection. Pregnant women who are at risk for HBV infection during pregnancy should be vaccinated; until more data are available with Heplisav-B, one of the other HepB vaccines should be used.41

Primary immunization with Heplisav-B consists of 2 doses (0 and 1 month). Primary immunization with the other HepB vaccines usually consists of 3 doses (0, 1, and 6 months). An alternate schedule (0, 1, and 2 months, followed by a fourth dose at 12 months) is FDA-approved for Engerix-B in the US and is only intended for use in those who have recently been exposed to the virus and travelers to high-risk areas. HepA/HepB vaccine can also be given in an accelerated schedule (0, 7, and 21-30 days, followed by a fourth dose at 12 months). If possible, the same vaccine should be used for all doses of a HepB series. However, an interrupted HepB series does not have to be restarted if the same vaccine is not available. A series started with a single dose of Engerix-B, Recombivax HB, or Twinrix can be completed with 2 doses of Heplisav-B. One dose of Heplisav-B can be used as part of a 3-dose series.41 Booster doses are not recommended for most adults who responded to primary immunization.39

Adverse Effects – The most common adverse effect of hepatitis B vaccination is pain at the injection site; erythema and swelling can also occur. In clinical trials, injection-site reactions were more common with Heplisav-B than with Engerix-B; rates of serious adverse events were similar with the two vaccines. Fever occurs in about 1-6% of recipients.

MENINGOCOCCAL — Fewer than 1000 cases of meningococcal disease occur in the US each year. The case fatality rate is 10-15% for meningitis and up to 40% for meningococcemia. Rates of meningococcal disease are highest in infancy. A second peak occurs in adolescents and young adults, and a third in adults ≥65 years old. Neisseria meningitidis serogroups B, C, and Y cause most cases of meningococcal disease in the US.

Two quadrivalent inactivated vaccines against N. meningitidis serogroups A, C, W, and Y (MenACWY; Menactra, Menveo) are available in the US. Both contain the same capsular polysaccharides.42 In adults, both vaccines induce serogroup-specific antibody responses in more than 90% of recipients.43 Serologic data show a significant decline in serum antibody titers 3-5 years after vaccination.4 Neither of these vaccines provides protection against sero group B.

Serogroup B Vaccine – In the US, serogroup B causes about 60% of all meningococcal disease in children <5 years old and about 50% of cases in young adults 17-22 years old. Several outbreaks of serogroup B meningococcal disease have occurred on college campuses in recent years.44,45 Two serogroup B meningococcal vaccines (MenB; Trumenba, Bexsero), are licensed in the US for use in persons 10-25 years old.46,47 Each contains components derived from cell surface antigens of prevalent serogroup B strains of N. meningitidis. They were approved based on the results of safety and immunogenicity studies. Their comparative efficacy and duration of immunity are unknown.

Recommendations for Use – Routine vaccination with MenACWY is recommended for adolescents 11-18 years old. Two doses given at least 8 weeks apart and one booster dose every 5 years are recommended for adults with HIV infection, functional or anatomic asplenia, or persistent complement component deficiencies (including persons taking eculizumab [Soliris], which impairs complement function). One dose of vaccine and revaccination every 5 years should be considered for adults who travel to or live in countries where meningococcal disease is hyperendemic or epidemic, including persons going to countries in the African meningitis belt or participating in the Hajj, persons who are at risk from a meningococcal disease outbreak attributed to serogroup A, C, W, or Y, microbiologists routinely exposed to N. meningitidis, military recruits and first-year college students who live in residential housing (if they did not receive MenACWY vaccine at age 16 years or older).48 MenACWY may be used in pregnant women if otherwise indicated.

MenB vaccine is recommended for adults with functional or anatomic asplenia, persons with persistent complement component deficiency or eculizumab use, those who are at risk from a meningococcal outbreak attributed to serogroup B, and microbiologists routinely exposed to N. meningitidis. Bexsero should be administered in 2 doses at least one month apart; Trumenba should be administered in 3 doses at 0, 1-2, and 6 months. MenB vaccine may also be considered for young adults 16 through 23 years old (preferably age 16-18 years) who are not at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease; in this setting, Trumenba should be given in 2 doses at least 6 months apart and Bexsero in 2 doses one month apart.49 The vaccines are not interchangeable; the same vaccine must be used for all doses. Either MenB vaccine may be administered concomitantly with other vaccines recommended for this age group, preferably at a different injection site. No booster doses are recommended for any group. MenB vaccination should be deferred in pregnant women unless the benefits are thought to outweigh the risks.

Adverse Effects – The most common adverse reactions to Menactra and Menveo are headache, fatigue, malaise, and injection-site pain, redness, and induration; rates are similar to those with tetanus toxoid. Guillian-Barré syndrome has been reported rarely in adolescents who received Menactra, but the risk appears to be very low (0-1.5 cases/1 million vaccines within 6 weeks after vaccination).48

The most common adverse effects of Bexsero and Trumenba are pain, erythema, and induration at the injection site, fatigue, headache, and myalgia.

HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B (Hib) — Hib can cause bacterial meningitis and other invasive diseases. The majority of Hib disease in the US occurs in infants and children; routine vaccination of young children is recommended.50 Three monovalent Hib conjugate vaccines (PedvaxHIB, ActHIB, and Hiberix) are available in the US.

Recommendations for Use – Hib vaccination is only recommended for immunocompromised adults who are considered at increased risk for invasive Hib disease.51 A single dose of any Hib conjugate vaccine should be administered to previously unvaccinated adults who have functional or anatomic asplenia or who are scheduled for an elective splenectomy (preferably ≥14 days before the procedure). Some experts suggest administering one dose to these patients regardless of prior vaccination history. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, including those who had previously been vaccinated, should receive 3 doses of Hib vaccine (given at least 4 weeks apart) beginning 6-12 months after the transplant. Hib vaccination is not recommended for HIV-infected adults.

Adverse Effects – Hib vaccine has not been studied in adults. In children, erythema, pain, and swelling at the injection site, mild fever, irritability, vomiting, and diarrhea have occurred.

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