The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics
February 11, 2019 (Issue: 1565)Cholesterol management guidelines from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force have recently been published. See Table 1 for a brief summary of their recommendations.
- SM Grundy et al. 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guideline on the management of blood cholesterol: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on clinical practice guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 November 3 (epub).
- R Chou et al. Statins for prevention of cardiovascular disease in adults: evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA 2016; 316:2008.
- S Yusuf et al. Cholesterol lowering in intermediate-risk persons without cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 2016; 374:2021.
- F Rodriguez et al. Association between intensity of statin therapy and mortality in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. JAMA Cardiol 2017; 2:47.
- CTT Collaboration et al. Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomised trials. Lancet 2010; 376:1670.
- CB Newman et al. Statin safety and associated adverse events: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2019; 39:e38.
- A Gupta et al. Adverse events associated with unblinded, but not with blinded, statin therapy in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Lipid-Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial and its non-randomised non-blind extension phase. Lancet 2017; 389:2473.
- HV Ganga et al. A systematic review of statin-induced muscle problems in clinical trials. Am Heart J 2014; 168:6.
- PM Ridker et al. Cardiovascular benefits and diabetes risks of statin therapy in primary prevention: an analysis from the JUPITER trial. Lancet 2012; 380:565.
- JS McKinney and WJ Kostis. Statin therapy and the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage: a meta-analysis of 31 randomized controlled trials. Stroke 2012; 43:2149.
- Inhibitors and inducers of CYP enzymes and P-glycoprotein. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2017 September 18 (epub). Available at: medicalletter.org/downloads/CYP_PGP_Tables.pdf.
- R Elsby et al. Solitary inhibition of the breast cancer resistance protein efflux transporter results in a clinically significant drug-drug interaction with rosuvastatin by causing up to a 2-fold increase in statin exposure. Drug Metab Dispos 2016; 44:398.
- BS Wiggins et al. Recommendations for management of clinically significant drug-drug interactions with statins and select agents used in patients with cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2016; 134:e468.
- Drug interaction: dabigatran (Pradaxa) and statins. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2017; 59:26.
- MG Silverman et al. Association between lowering LDL-C and cardiovascular risk reduction among different therapeutic interventions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2016; 316:1289.
- Pitavastatin (Livalo) – the seventh statin. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2010; 52:64.
- In brief: Pitavastatin magnesium (Zypitamag) for hyperlipidemia. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2018; 60:106.
- CP Cannon et al. Ezetimibe added to statin therapy after acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med 2015; 372:2387.
- Alirocumab (Praluent) to lower LDL-cholesterol. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2015; 57:113.
- Evolocumab (Repatha) – a second PCSK9 inhibitor to lower LDL-cholesterol. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2015; 57:140.
- JG Robinson et al. Efficacy and safety of alirocumab in reducing lipids and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med 2015; 372:1489.
- MS Sabatine et al. Efficacy and safety of evolocumab in reducing lipids and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med 2015; 372:1500.
- GG Schwartz et al. Alirocumab and cardiovascular outcomes after acute coronary syndrome. N Engl J Med 2018; 379:2097.
- MS Sabatine et al. Evolocumab and clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 2017; 376:1713.
- RP Giugliano et al. Cognitive function in a randomized trial of evolocumab. N Engl J Med 2017; 377:633.
- PD Harvey et al. No evidence of neurocognitive adverse events associated with alirocumab treatment in 3340 patients from 14 randomized phase 2 and 3 controlled trials: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Eur Heart J 2018; 39:374.
- Z Yuan. Dysregulated expressions of PCSK9 are associated with neural tube defects. Atherosclerosis 2018; 32:143.
- RN Jerome et al. Using human 'experiments of nature' to predict drug safety issues: an example with PCSK9 inhibitors. Drug Saf 2018; 41:303.
- S Ross et al. Effect of bile acid sequestrants on the risk of cardiovascular events: a Mendelian randomization analysis. Circ Cardiovasc Genet 2015; 8:618.
- Drugs for hypertriglyceridemia. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2013; 55:17.
- HB Rubins et al. Gemfibrozil for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in men with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Veterans Affairs High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Intervention Trial Study Group. N Engl J Med 1999; 341:410.
- The ACCORD Study Group et al. Effects of combination lipid therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 2010; 362:1563.
- AB Goldfine et al. Fibrates in the treatment of dyslipidemias – time for a reassessment. N Engl J Med 2011; 365:481.
- FDA. AbbVie Inc. et al; withdrawal of approval of indications related to the coadministration with statins in applications for niacin extended-release tablets and fenofibric acid delayed-release capsules. Federal Register 2016 April 18; 81 FR 22612. Docket No. FDA-2016-N-1127.
- P Willeit et al. Baseline and on-statin treatment lipoprotein(a) levels for prediction of cardiovascular events: individual patient-data meta-analysis of statin outcome trials. Lancet 2018; 392:1311.
- E Bruckert et al. Meta-analysis of the effect of nicotinic acid alone or in combination on cardiovascular events and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 2010; 210:353.
- HPS2-THRIVE Collaborative Group et al. Effects of extended-release niacin with laropiprant in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med 2014; 371:203.
- DM Lloyd-Jones. Niacin and HDL cholesterol – time to face facts. N Engl J Med 2014; 371:271.
- Fish oil supplements. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2012; 54:83.
- Risk and Prevention Study Collaborative Group et al. N-3 fatty acids in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. N Engl J Med 2013; 368:1800.
- SM Kwak et al. Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplements (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 2012; 172:686.
- JE Manson et al. Marine n-3 fatty acids and prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. N Engl J Med 2019; 380:23.
- DL Bhatt et al. Cardiovascular risk reduction with icosapent ethyl for hypertriglyceridemia. N Engl J Med 2019; 380:11.
- JJ Kastelein et al. Omega-3 free fatty acids for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia: the EpanoVa fOr Lowering Very high triglyceridEs (EVOLVE) trial. J Clin Lipidol 2014; 8:94.
- DJ Rader and JJ Kastelein. Lomitapide and mipomersen: two first-in-class drugs for reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Circulation 2014; 129:1022.
- Two new drugs for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2013; 55:25.
- FJ Raal et al. Inhibition of PCSK9 with evolocumab in homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (TESLA Part B): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2015; 385:341.
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