The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • November 28, 2022; (Issue 1664)
The short-acting formulation of mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall, and generics) FDA-approved for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, is currently in short supply in the US. Until an adequate supply is restored, patients may be looking for alternatives.
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and the dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)/GLP-1 receptor agonist tirzepatide (Mounjaro) are widely prescribed for treatment of type 2 diabetes and weight management (see Table 1), but they delay gastric emptying and commonly cause nausea and vomiting. Gastroparesis and bowel obstruction (ileus) have also been reported with their use.
Influenza is generally a self-limited illness, but pneumonia, respiratory failure, and death can occur, especially in patients at increased risk for influenza complications (see Table 1). Antiviral drugs recommended for treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza for the 2023-2024 season are listed in Table 2. Updated information on influenza activity and antiviral resistance is available from the CDC at www.cdc.gov/flu.
The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin (Jardiance – Boehringer Ingelheim/Lilly) is now FDA-approved to reduce the risk of sustained eGFR decline, end-stage kidney disease, cardiovascular death, and hospitalization in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) at risk of progression. It is also approved to improve glycemic control in patients ≥10 years old with type 2 diabetes, to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure (HF) in adults with HF, and to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death in adults with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease.
In the printed version of our article entitled Antiviral Drugs for Influenza for 2023-2024 in issue 1689 (Med Lett Drugs Ther 2023; 65:177), the clinical studies section should have included a meta-analysis of 15 randomized trials in 6295 outpatient adolescents and adults with influenza that found that use of oseltamivir did not reduce the risk of hospitalization in the overall population or in those ≥65 years old compared to placebo or standard of care. It has been added in the online version of the article.
A new 2023-2024 formulation of the adjuvanted protein subunit COVID-19 vaccine manufactured by Novavax that was developed to more closely target currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants has been made available in the US under an FDA Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for use in persons ≥12 years old. The original formulation of the Novavax vaccine is no longer authorized for use in the US. In September, updated formulations of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines manufactured by Pfizer/BioNTech (Comirnaty) and Moderna (Spikevax) were licensed by the FDA for use in persons ≥12 years old and made available under EUAs for use in persons 6 months to 11 years old.
The FDA has approved ritlecitinib (Litfulo – Pfizer), an oral JAK and TEC kinase family inhibitor, for treatment of severe alopecia areata in patients ≥12 years old. Ritlecitinib is the second oral drug to be approved in the US for treatment of severe alopecia areata; baricitinib (Olumiant), a JAK inhibitor, is approved only for use in adults.
View the Comparison Chart: Antiviral Drugs for Influenza for 2023-2024
Low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy similar to that used to fragment kidney stones or gallstones is a new option for treatment of erectile dysfunction that is now being advertised extensively in the US. It has not been approved by the FDA for treatment of erectile dysfunction.
The oral sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator etrasimod (Velsipity – Pfizer) has been approved by the FDA for treatment of moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis in adults. It is the second oral S1P receptor modulator to be approved in the US for this indication; ozanimod (Zeposia) was the first.