Matching articles for "Proton pump inhibitors"

Drugs for GERD and Peptic Ulcer Disease

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • April 4, 2022;  (Issue 1647)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common GI condition encountered in the outpatient setting; it affects about 20% of people in the...
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common GI condition encountered in the outpatient setting; it affects about 20% of people in the US.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2022 Apr 4;64(1647):49-56 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Comparison Table: H2-Receptor Antagonists and PPIs (online only)

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • April 4, 2022;  (Issue 1647)
...
View the Comparison Table: H2-Receptor Antagonists and PPIs
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2022 Apr 4;64(1647):e56-7 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Glycopyrrolate (Dartisla ODT) for Peptic Ulcer Symptoms

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • February 7, 2022;  (Issue 1643)
The FDA has approved adjunctive treatment with Dartisla ODT (Edenbridge), a new orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formulation of the anticholinergic drug glycopyrrolate, to reduce symptoms of a peptic...
The FDA has approved adjunctive treatment with Dartisla ODT (Edenbridge), a new orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formulation of the anticholinergic drug glycopyrrolate, to reduce symptoms of a peptic ulcer. Glycopyrrolate oral tablets (Robinul, Robinul Forte, and generics) were approved for the same indication in 1961.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2022 Feb 7;64(1643):24 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Talicia - A 3-Drug Combination for Helicobacter pylori Infection

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • June 1, 2020;  (Issue 1599)
The FDA has approved a fixed-dose combination of omeprazole, amoxicillin, and rifabutin (Talicia – RedHill) for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in adults. Talicia is the first rifabutin-based...
The FDA has approved a fixed-dose combination of omeprazole, amoxicillin, and rifabutin (Talicia – RedHill) for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in adults. Talicia is the first rifabutin-based product to be approved for this indication.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2020 Jun 1;62(1599):83-5 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Clarithromycin in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • May 21, 2018;  (Issue 1547)
The FDA has warned that use of the macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin (Biaxin, and generics) may increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with heart...
The FDA has warned that use of the macrolide antibiotic clarithromycin (Biaxin, and generics) may increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with heart disease.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2018 May 21;60(1547):89-90 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Nonopioid Drugs for Pain

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • February 12, 2018;  (Issue 1540)
Nonopioid drugs can be used in the treatment of many nociceptive and neuropathic pain conditions. Use of opioids for pain will be reviewed in a future...
Nonopioid drugs can be used in the treatment of many nociceptive and neuropathic pain conditions. Use of opioids for pain will be reviewed in a future issue.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2018 Feb 12;60(1540):24-32 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Neratinib (Nerlynx) for HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • January 29, 2018;  (Issue 1539)
The FDA has approved the oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor neratinib (Nerlynx – Puma Biotechnology) for extended adjuvant treatment of adults with early-stage, human epidermal growth factor receptor...
The FDA has approved the oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor neratinib (Nerlynx – Puma Biotechnology) for extended adjuvant treatment of adults with early-stage, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer, following adjuvant trastuzumab (Herceptin)-based therapy. HER2 is overexpressed in about 20% of breast cancers. Up to 30% of early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer cases treated with trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy recur.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2018 Jan 29;60(1539):23 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Drugs for GERD and Peptic Ulcer Disease

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • January 15, 2018;  (Issue 1538)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most frequent GI condition encountered in the outpatient setting; it affects about 20% of the US population. Heartburn and regurgitation are the classic...
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most frequent GI condition encountered in the outpatient setting; it affects about 20% of the US population. Heartburn and regurgitation are the classic symptoms of GERD.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2018 Jan 15;60(1538):9-16 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Comparison Table: Drugs for GERD and Peptic Ulcer Disease (online only)

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • January 15, 2018;  (Issue 1538)
...
View the Comparison Table: Drugs for GERD and Peptic Ulcer Disease
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2018 Jan 15;60(1538):e16-8 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Safety of Long-Term PPI Use

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • August 14, 2017;  (Issue 1527)
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which are used for treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and for prevention of upper gastrointestinal adverse effects caused by NSAIDs and aspirin, are one...
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which are used for treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and for prevention of upper gastrointestinal adverse effects caused by NSAIDs and aspirin, are one of the most commonly prescribed classes of drugs in the US. All PPIs are similarly effective and generally well tolerated, but their long-term use has been associated with a number of safety concerns. Recommendations addressing these concerns have recently been published.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2017 Aug 14;59(1527):131-3 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Drugs for Helicobacter pylori Infection

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • July 17, 2017;  (Issue 1525)
About 50% of the world’s population is infected with Helicobacter pylori. These gastric bacteria can cause chronic inflammation and have been associated with development of gastritis, peptic ulcer disease,...
About 50% of the world’s population is infected with Helicobacter pylori. These gastric bacteria can cause chronic inflammation and have been associated with development of gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Eradication of H. pylori can promote gastric healing, prevent recurrence of duodenal and gastric ulcers, and reduce the incidence of gastric cancer. Guidelines for treatment of H. pylori infection were updated recently.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2017 Jul 17;59(1525):113-7 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Obalon Balloon System - Another Gastric Balloon for Weight Loss

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • June 19, 2017;  (Issue 1523)
The FDA has approved the Obalon Balloon System (Obalon), a swallowable intragastric gas-filled balloon device, to facilitate weight loss in adults with a body mass index (BMI) of 30-40 kg/m2 who have not...
The FDA has approved the Obalon Balloon System (Obalon), a swallowable intragastric gas-filled balloon device, to facilitate weight loss in adults with a body mass index (BMI) of 30-40 kg/m2 who have not been able to lose weight through diet and exercise. Two other gastric balloon devices, ReShape and Orbera, were approved earlier.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2017 Jun 19;59(1523):102-3 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Drug Interaction: Clopidogrel and PPIs

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • February 27, 2017;  (Issue 1515)
The antiplatelet drug clopidogrel (Plavix, and others) reduces major cardiovascular events, but can cause bleeding. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are often used with clopidogrel to prevent...
The antiplatelet drug clopidogrel (Plavix, and others) reduces major cardiovascular events, but can cause bleeding. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are often used with clopidogrel to prevent gastrointestinal bleeding, however, some evidence suggests that PPIs may interfere with the activation of clopidogrel and diminish its antiplatelet effect. FDA-approved labeling recommends avoiding concurrent use of the PPIs omeprazole and esomeprazole with clopidogrel.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2017 Feb 27;59(1515):39-40 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

In Brief: PPIs and Torsades de Pointes

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • December 5, 2016;  (Issue 1509)
Therapeutics (AZCERT) has recently added the proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) omeprazole (Prilosec, and others), esomeprazole (Nexium, and others), lansoprazole (Prevacid, and others), and pantoprazole (Protonix,...
Therapeutics (AZCERT) has recently added the proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) omeprazole (Prilosec, and others), esomeprazole (Nexium, and others), lansoprazole (Prevacid, and others), and pantoprazole (Protonix, and generics) to its lists of Drugs with Conditional Risk of Torsades de Pointes (TdP) and Drugs to Avoid in Patients with Congenital Long QT Syndrome.1

PPIs do not directly cause prolongation of the QT interval, but they can cause hypomagnesemia, which is often accompanied by hypocalcemia and hypokalemia and can result in cardiac repolarization disturbances such as QT interval prolongation.2 Reports have described cases of QT interval prolongation and TdP associated with severe PPI-induced hypomagnesemia.3,4 TdP has also been reported in patients taking a PPI concomitantly with drugs that directly prolong the QT interval.5,6 The newer PPIs dexlansoprazole (Dexilant) and rabeprazole (Aciphex, and generics) have not been linked to QT interval prolongation or TdP to date, but they have been associated with hypomagnesemia.

Serum magnesium levels should be monitored periodically in patients taking a PPI for an extended period of time (>2 weeks). If possible, extended PPI therapy should be avoided in patients who require treatment with drugs that carry a known risk of TdP7 and in those with long QT syndrome. If extended PPI therapy must be used with a drug that prolongs the QT interval, close monitoring of magnesium levels and the QT interval is recommended.

  1. AZCERT. New drugs added to CredibleMeds drugs lists. November 2, 2016. Available at: www.crediblemeds.org. Accessed November 22, 2016.
  2. In brief: PPIs and hypomagnesemia. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2011; 53:25.
  3. EJ Hoorn et al. A case series of proton pump inhibitor-induced hypomagnesemia. Am J Kidney Dis 2010; 56:112.
  4. BA Hansen and Ø Bruserud. Hypomagnesemia as a potentially life-threatening adverse effect of omeprazole. Oxf Med Case Reports 2016; 2016:147.
  5. H Asajima et al. Lansoprazole precipitated QT prolongation and torsade de pointes associated with disopyramide. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2012; 68:331.
  6. JN Bibawy et al. Pantoprazole (proton pump inhibitor) contributing to torsades de pointes storm. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2013; 6:e17.
  7. RL Woosley and KA Romero. QT drugs list. Available at: www.crediblemeds. org. Accessed November 22, 2016.


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Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2016 Dec 5;58(1509):153 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Which PPI?

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • June 22, 2015;  (Issue 1471)
An article published in the New York Times on May 1, 2015 listed the 10 drugs on which Medicare Part D spent the most in 2013. The most costly ($2.53 billion) was the proton pump inhibitor (PPI)...
An article published in the New York Times on May 1, 2015 listed the 10 drugs on which Medicare Part D spent the most in 2013. The most costly ($2.53 billion) was the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) Nexium (esomeprazole magnesium), which has recently become available generically.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2015 Jun 22;57(1471):91 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

A Combination of Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir (Harvoni) for Hepatitis C

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • November 10, 2014;  (Issue 1455)
The FDA has approved a fixed-dose combination (Harvoni [har voe' nee] – Gilead) of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir (led' i pas' vir), two oral direct-acting antiviral agents, for treatment of chronic hepatitis C...
The FDA has approved a fixed-dose combination (Harvoni [har voe' nee] – Gilead) of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir (led' i pas' vir), two oral direct-acting antiviral agents, for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection. Genotype 1 is responsible for 70-80% of HCV infections in the US. Sofosbuvir (Sovaldi) was approved earlier for use in combination with other antiviral drugs for treatment of HCV infection. Ledipasvir is a new drug.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2014 Nov 10;56(1455):111-2 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Antithrombotic Drugs

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • October 27, 2014;  (Issue 1454)
Antiplatelet drugs are the drugs of choice for prevention and treatment of arterial thrombosis. Anticoagulants are the drugs of choice for prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and...
Antiplatelet drugs are the drugs of choice for prevention and treatment of arterial thrombosis. Anticoagulants are the drugs of choice for prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and for prevention of cardioembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2014 Oct 27;56(1454):103-8 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Drugs for Osteoarthritis

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • September 1, 2014;  (Issue 1450)
Many different drugs are used for treatment of osteoarthritis pain, but none of them prevent progression of the disease. Many nonpharmacologic approaches are available as well, including weight...
Many different drugs are used for treatment of osteoarthritis pain, but none of them prevent progression of the disease. Many nonpharmacologic approaches are available as well, including weight management, exercise, physical therapy, assistive devices, and total joint arthroplasty. New guidelines for the management of osteoarthritis have recently been published.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2014 Sep 1;56(1450):80-4 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Drugs for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • August 4, 2014;  (Issue 1448)
Aminosalicylates are effective for induction and maintenance of remission in mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. They are not recommended for treatment of Crohn's disease. FORMULATIONS — Oral mesalamine...
Aminosalicylates are effective for induction and maintenance of remission in mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. They are not recommended for treatment of Crohn's disease.

FORMULATIONS — Oral mesalamine is rapidly absorbed in the small intestine and most of the drug does not reach the colon. Pentasa releases mesalamine gradually throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Delzicol, Asacol HD, Lialda, and Apriso delay the release of the drug until it reaches the distal ileum and colon. Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine, and generics), balsalazide (Colazal, and others), and olsalazine (Dipentum) are prodrugs; mesalamine is azo-bonded to a second moiety and released in the colon following bacterial cleavage of the bond. Mesalamine is also available as an enema (Rowasa, and generics) and as a rectal suppository (Canasa).
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2014 Aug 4;56(1448):65-72 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

In Brief: Esomeprazole Strontium

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • July 21, 2014;  (Issue 1447)
The FDA has approved the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) esomeprazole strontium for use in adults for the same indications as esomeprazole magnesium (Nexium): treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD),...
The FDA has approved the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) esomeprazole strontium for use in adults for the same indications as esomeprazole magnesium (Nexium): treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), prevention of NSAID-induced gastric ulcers, eradication of Helicobacter pylori, and treatment of pathological hypersecretory conditions. It was first marketed in December 2013 as a branded drug (Esomeprazole Strontium) and a month later as a generic drug.

Strontium is incorporated into bone. It is not recommended for use in children or during pregnancy because of the absence of safety data in those populations. Use of esomeprazole strontium is not recommended for patients with severe renal impairment.

Esomeprazole strontium is the seventh PPI to become available as a single agent in the US. No new clinical trials were required for its approval, which was based on earlier clinical trials with esomeprazole magnesium. All of the PPIs appear to be equally effective.1

  1. Drugs for peptic ulcer disease and GERD. Treat Guidel Med Lett 2014; 12:25.


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Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2014 Jul 21;56(1447):64 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Drugs for Peptic Ulcer Disease and GERD

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • April 1, 2014;  (Issue 140)
H2-RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS (H2RAs) — Currently available H2RAs are listed in Table 1. These drugs inhibit the action of histamine at the H2-receptor of the gastric parietal cell, decreasing basal acid...
H2-RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS (H2RAs) — Currently available H2RAs are listed in Table 1. These drugs inhibit the action of histamine at the H2-receptor of the gastric parietal cell, decreasing basal acid secretion and, to a lesser degree, food-stimulated acid secretion. All H2RAs are about equally effective for treatment of PUD and GERD. H2RAs are faster acting than PPIs in relieving symptoms of dyspepsia or GERD, but they are not as effective as PPIs in relieving symptoms or in healing erosive esophagitis. Repeated administration of H2RAs leads to pharmacologic tolerance and has been associated with the development of new dyspeptic symptoms. Rebound acid hypersecretion can occur after stopping H2RAs.
Treat Guidel Med Lett. 2014 Apr;12(140):25-30 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Teduglutide Injection (Gattex) for Short Bowel Syndrome

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • April 15, 2013;  (Issue 1414)
The FDA has approved teduglutide (te due’ gloo tide; Gattex – NPS), a recombinant DNA analog of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), for treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS) in adults who are...
The FDA has approved teduglutide (te due’ gloo tide; Gattex – NPS), a recombinant DNA analog of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), for treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS) in adults who are dependent on parenteral support.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2013 Apr 15;55(1414):29-30 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Drugs for Pain

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • April 1, 2013;  (Issue 128)
Pain can be acute or chronic. The two major types of chronic pain are nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain. Nociceptive pain can be treated with nonopioid analgesics or opioids. Neuropathic pain is less...
Pain can be acute or chronic. The two major types of chronic pain are nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain. Nociceptive pain can be treated with nonopioid analgesics or opioids. Neuropathic pain is less responsive to opioids and is often treated with adjuvant drugs such as antidepressants and antiepileptics. Combining different types of analgesics may provide an additive analgesic effect without increasing adverse effects.
Treat Guidel Med Lett. 2013 Apr;11(128):31-42 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

PPIs and Fracture Risk

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • February 18, 2013;  (Issue 1410)
Use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been associated with an increase in the risk of fractures. The FDA now requires that the labels of all prescription...
Use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been associated with an increase in the risk of fractures. The FDA now requires that the labels of all prescription PPIs include a warning about an increased risk of fractures with long-term use.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2013 Feb 18;55(1410):15-6 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

A Fixed-Dose Combination of Ibuprofen and Famotidine (Duexis)

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • October 31, 2011;  (Issue 1376)
The FDA has approved Duexis (Horizon), a fixed-dose combination of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen and the H2-receptor antagonist (H2RA) famotidine, for symptomatic relief of...
The FDA has approved Duexis (Horizon), a fixed-dose combination of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen and the H2-receptor antagonist (H2RA) famotidine, for symptomatic relief of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis and to decrease the risk of developing gastric and duodenal ulcers in patients at risk for NSAID-associated ulcers. Vimovo, a combination of the NSAID naproxen and the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) esomeprazole, is also approved by the FDA for prevention of NSAID-associated gastric ulcers.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2011 Oct 31;53(1376):85-6 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Drugs for Peptic Ulcer Disease and GERD

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • September 1, 2011;  (Issue 109)
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is usually caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or by infection with Helicobacter pylori. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can be caused by...
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is usually caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or by infection with Helicobacter pylori. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can be caused by transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, reduced lower esophageal sphincter tone, hiatal hernia, delayed gastric emptying or hormonal changes due to pregnancy. Acid suppressive therapy is the cornerstone of management for both PUD and GERD.
Treat Guidel Med Lett. 2011 Sep;9(109):55-60 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

In Brief: PPIs and Hypomagnesemia

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • April 4, 2011;  (Issue 1361)
The FDA has warned that prolonged use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) can lead to hypomagnesemia.1 Normal serum concentrations of magnesium are 0.7-1.0 mmol/L. About 30 cases of severe hypomagnesemia (<0.5...
The FDA has warned that prolonged use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) can lead to hypomagnesemia.1 Normal serum concentrations of magnesium are 0.7-1.0 mmol/L. About 30 cases of severe hypomagnesemia (<0.5 mmol/L) have been reported in long-term PPI users; when the PPI was stopped, serum magnesium levels returned to normal in less than 2 weeks.2-5 The exact mechanism is unknown, but in some patients PPIs apparently interfere with active transport of magnesium across the intestinal wall or cause excessive loss into the intestinal lumen.6 Hypomagnesemia is often accompanied by hypocalcemia and hypokalemia. Symptoms can include muscle weakness, tremor, muscle cramps, carpopedal spasm, tetany, seizures, and cardiac conduction disturbances and arrhythmias. Most patients who take PPIs for a long time do not develop hypomagnesemia, and those with hypomagnesemia often do not have symptoms. Patients also taking other drugs that cause hypomagnesemia, such as diuretics and digoxin, may be at increased risk.

1. FDA Drug Safety Communication: Low magnesium levels can be associated with long-term use of proton pump inhibitor drugs (PPIs). Available at www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm245011.htm. Accessed March 28, 2011.

2. M Epstein et al. Proton-pump inhibitors and hypomagnesemic hypoparathyroidism. N Engl J Med 2006; 355:1834.

3. T Cundy and A Dissanayake. Severe hypomagnesaemia in long-term users of proton-pump inhibitors. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2008; 69:338.

4. MA Broeren et al. Hypomagnesemia induced by several proton-pump inhibitors. Ann Intern Med 2009; 151:755.

5. J Mackay and PT Bladon. Hypomagnesaemia due to proton-pump inhibitor therapy: a clinical case series. QJM 2010; 103:387.

6. T Cundy and J Mackay. Proton pump inhibitors and severe hypomagnesaemia. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2011; 27:180.

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Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2011 Apr 4;53(1361):25 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

In Brief: Clopidogrel and Omeprazole

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • November 29, 2010;  (Issue 1352)
Use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) to protect against gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in patients taking the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel (Plavix) may interfere with the activation of clopidogrel and...
Use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) to protect against gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in patients taking the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel (Plavix) may interfere with the activation of clopidogrel and diminish its antiplatelet effect, increasing the risk of cardiovascular events.1 A randomized, placebo-controlled trial (COGENT) has found that use of the PPI omeprazole in patients taking clopidogrel in addition to aspirin decreased the incidence of GI bleeding without increasing the risk of a cardiovascular event, but the number of cardiovascular events was small and the formulation of omeprazole was atypical.2 The FDA in the same issue of the same journal cautioned against concluding from the results of COGENT that concurrent use of clopidogrel and omeprazole is safe.3

To some extent, all PPIs reduce the enzymatic activity of CYP2C19, which is thought to be mainly responsible for the bioactivation of clopidogrel. Omeprazole is a strong inhibitor of CYP2C19; pantoprazole (Protonix, and others) appears to have less effect on CYP2C19 and not to attenuate the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel.4-6 Medical Letter consultants believe that patients at risk for upper GI bleeding who take clopidogrel should also take a PPI, but not omeprazole. Until more data become available on other PPIs, pantoprazole would be a reasonable choice.

1. PPI interactions with clopidogrel revisited. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2009; 51:13.

2. DL Bhatt et al. Clopidogrel with or without omeprazole in coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 2010; 363:1909.

3. MR Southworth and R Temple. Interaction of clopidogrel and omeprazole. N Engl J Med 2010; 363:1977.

4. DJ Angiolillo et al. Differential effects of omeprazole and pantoprazole on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel in healthy subjects: randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover comparison studies. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2010; Sept 15 epub.

5. T Cuisset et al. Comparison of omeprazole and pantoprazole influence on a high 150-mg clopidogrel maintenance dose: the PACA (Proton Pump Inhibitors And Clopidogrel Association) prospective randomized study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009; 54:1149.

6. H Neubaurer et al. Pantoprazole does not influence the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel – a whole blood aggregometry study after coronary stenting. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2010; 56:91.

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Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2010 Nov 29;52(1352):93 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Naproxen/Esomeprazole (Vimovo)

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • September 20, 2010;  (Issue 1347)
The FDA has approved the marketing of Vimovo (AstraZeneca), a fixed-dose combination of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) naproxen and the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) esomeprazole,...
The FDA has approved the marketing of Vimovo (AstraZeneca), a fixed-dose combination of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) naproxen and the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) esomeprazole, for symptomatic relief of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis and to decrease the risk of developing gastric ulcers in patients at risk for NSAID-associated ulcers.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2010 Sep 20;52(1347):74-5 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Primary Prevention of Ulcers in Patients Taking Aspirin or NSAIDs

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • March 8, 2010;  (Issue 1333)
Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are common causes of peptic ulcer disease. Patients infected with Helicobacter pylori who take aspirin or another NSAID have an especially high...
Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are common causes of peptic ulcer disease. Patients infected with Helicobacter pylori who take aspirin or another NSAID have an especially high risk. Drugs that have been tried for prevention of ulcers in patients taking NSAIDs including H2-receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), aluminum- or magnesium-containing antacids, the prostaglandin misoprostol (Cytotec, and others), and antibiotics to eradicate H. pylori.

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Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2010 Mar 8;52(1333):17-9 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Generic Drugs Revisited

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • October 19, 2009;  (Issue 1323)
The equivalence of generic drugs to their brand-name precursors continues to be controversial. The last Medical Letter review of this subject (2002) concluded that well-documented therapeutic inequivalence...
The equivalence of generic drugs to their brand-name precursors continues to be controversial. The last Medical Letter review of this subject (2002) concluded that well-documented therapeutic inequivalence between brand-name and FDA-approved generic drugs had not been reported. Is that still true? New data have become available for some drugs.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2009 Oct 19;51(1323):81-2 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Prasugrel (Effient) vs. Clopidogrel (Plavix)

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • September 7, 2009;  (Issue 1320)
The FDA has approved prasugrel (Effient - Lilly/Daiichi Sankyo), an oral antiplatelet drug, for use with aspirin to reduce the rate of thrombotic cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes...
The FDA has approved prasugrel (Effient - Lilly/Daiichi Sankyo), an oral antiplatelet drug, for use with aspirin to reduce the rate of thrombotic cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) being managed with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). It will compete with clopidogrel (Plavix) for such use.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2009 Sep 7;51(1320):69-70 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Antimicrobial Prophylaxis for Surgery

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • June 1, 2009;  (Issue 82)
Antimicrobial prophylaxis can decrease the incidence of infection, particularly surgical site infection, after certain procedures. Recommendations for prevention of surgical site infection are listed in the...
Antimicrobial prophylaxis can decrease the incidence of infection, particularly surgical site infection, after certain procedures. Recommendations for prevention of surgical site infection are listed in the table that begins on page 48. Antimicrobial prophylaxis for dental procedures to prevent endocarditis is discussed in The Medical Letter 2007; 49:99.
Treat Guidel Med Lett. 2009 Jun;7(82):47-52 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Encapsulated Mesalamine Granules (Apriso) for Ulcerative Colitis

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • May 18, 2009;  (Issue 1312)
Apriso (Salix) is a new formulation of mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid; 5-ASA) approved by the FDA for maintenance of remission in mild to moderate ulcerative colitis (UC). Mesalamine is a locally acting...
Apriso (Salix) is a new formulation of mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid; 5-ASA) approved by the FDA for maintenance of remission in mild to moderate ulcerative colitis (UC). Mesalamine is a locally acting antiinflammatory agent that is widely used both to maintain and induce remission in inflammatory bowel disease. Various mesalamine formulations have been developed to target drug delivery to areas of the small intestine and colon. Most of these agents require frequent dosing and have a high pill burden. The newest products - Lialda, introduced in 2007,1 and now Apriso - can be dosed once daily.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2009 May 18;51(1312):38-9 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

PPI Interactions with Clopidogrel Revisted

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • February 23, 2009;  (Issue 1306)
Current guidelines recommend use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) to decrease the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients taking clopidogrel (Plavix) with aspirin. A recent issue of The Medical Letter...
Current guidelines recommend use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) to decrease the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients taking clopidogrel (Plavix) with aspirin. A recent issue of The Medical Letter considered whether omeprazole (Prilosec, and others) or other PPIs could interfere with the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel. The conclusion was that patients taking both drugs should probably continue to do so until more data became available. Several new publications require reconsideration of that recommendation.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2009 Feb 23;51(1306):13-4 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

PPI Interactions with Clopidogrel

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • January 12, 2009;  (Issue 1303)
Clopidogrel (Plavix), which prevents arterial thrombosis by inhibiting platelet activation, is commonly prescribed (usually with aspirin) for months after acute coronary syndromes and stent implantation. It may...
Clopidogrel (Plavix), which prevents arterial thrombosis by inhibiting platelet activation, is commonly prescribed (usually with aspirin) for months after acute coronary syndromes and stent implantation. It may also, however, increase the risk of bleeding. Therefore, a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) such as omeprazole (Prilosec, and others) is often given concurrently to decrease the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Some reports have suggested that omeprazole may interfere with the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2009 Jan 12;51(1303):2-3 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Treatment of Peptic Ulcers and GERD

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • August 1, 2008;  (Issue 72)
Peptic ulcers caused by treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are mainly gastric ulcers. Most duodenal and other gastric ulcers are caused by the gram-negative bacillus Helicobacter...
Peptic ulcers caused by treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are mainly gastric ulcers. Most duodenal and other gastric ulcers are caused by the gram-negative bacillus Helicobacter pylori. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is caused by gastric acid reflux into the esophagus. Drugs that suppress gastric acid production are the primary treatment for GERD and peptic ulcers.
Treat Guidel Med Lett. 2008 Aug;6(72):55-60 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Proton Pump Inhibitors for GERD in Children

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • February 26, 2007;  (Issue 1255)
A recent advertisement for the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) lansoprazole (Prevacid - TAP) suggests that children who cough at night, complain of abdominal pain, refuse to eat, or have a bad taste in their mouths...
A recent advertisement for the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) lansoprazole (Prevacid - TAP) suggests that children who cough at night, complain of abdominal pain, refuse to eat, or have a bad taste in their mouths may all have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A Bunny's Tummy Trouble, a children's book about GERD published by TAP, is now available as a patient handout in pediatricians' waiting rooms. The use of acid-suppressive drugs in infants and children has increased markedly in recent years and many of these drugs are now available in child-friendly formulations. A table in the article lists some of the drugs used to treat GERD in children.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2007 Feb 26;49(1255):17-8 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Drugs for Rheumatoid Arthritis

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • December 1, 2005;  (Issue 40)
To prevent irreversible damage to joints and minimize toxicities associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids, disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are now used...
To prevent irreversible damage to joints and minimize toxicities associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids, disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are now used early in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The DMARDs listed in the table on page 84 have no immediate analgesic effects, but can control symptoms and have been shown to delay and possibly stop progression of the disease. The NSAIDs listed in the table on page 88 have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, but may not affect the disease process. Oral corticosteroids can rapidly relieve joint symptoms and control systemic manifestations, but their chronic use is associated with many complications.
Treat Guidel Med Lett. 2005 Dec;3(40):83-90 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

In Brief: Zegerid - Immediate-Release Omeprazole

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • April 11, 2005;  (Issue 1206)
The FDA has approved marketing of Zegerid powder for oral suspension (Santarus), an immediate-release formulation of the proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole (Prilosec, and others). All other oral PPIs are...
The FDA has approved marketing of Zegerid powder for oral suspension (Santarus), an immediate-release formulation of the proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole (Prilosec, and others). All other oral PPIs are delayed-release, enteric-coated formulations designed to prevent degradation of the drug by gastric acid. Each 20- or 40-mg packet of Zegerid contains 1680 mg of sodium bicarbonate, which protects the drug from gastric acid degradation. A dose of Zegerid contains 460 mg of sodium, which may be excessive for some patients. Zegerid is the first oral PPI to be approved by the FDA for reduction of risk of upper GI bleeding in critically ill patients. The drug may be useful for patients who are unable to swallow and have nasogastric (NG) tubes in place. Zegerid costs $70.00 for 14 days' treatment, compared to less than $10 for 14 tablets of Prilosec OTC.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2005 Apr 11;47(1206):29 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

COX-2 Alternatives and GI Protection

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • November 8, 2004;  (Issue 1195)
With the removal of Vioxx from the market and concerns about cardiovascular toxicity with other selective COX-2 inhibitors, patients are looking for safe alternatives, and manufacturers of other drugs are...
With the removal of Vioxx from the market and concerns about cardiovascular toxicity with other selective COX-2 inhibitors, patients are looking for safe alternatives, and manufacturers of other drugs are looking for additional market share. The COX-2 inhibitors first became popular because they have less upper GI toxicity than older less selective NSAIDs, at least in the short term, in patients not taking aspirin.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2004 Nov 8;46(1195):91-2 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Drugs for Pain

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • July 1, 2004;  (Issue 23)
Three types of analgesic drugs are available: non-opioids, including aspirin, other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and acetaminophen; opioids; and adjuvant drugs that are not usually thought of...
Three types of analgesic drugs are available: non-opioids, including aspirin, other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and acetaminophen; opioids; and adjuvant drugs that are not usually thought of as analgesics, such as antidepressants, which can act as adjuvants when given with NSAIDs or opioids, or have analgesic activity of their own in some types of pain. Combining two different types of analgesics may provide an additive analgesic effect without necessarily increasing adverse effects.
Treat Guidel Med Lett. 2004 Jul;2(23):47-54 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Antimicrobial Prophylaxis for Surgery

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • April 1, 2004;  (Issue 20)
Antimicrobial prophylaxis can decrease the incidence of infection, particularly surgical site infection, after certain operations, but this benefit must be weighed against the risks of toxic and allergic...
Antimicrobial prophylaxis can decrease the incidence of infection, particularly surgical site infection, after certain operations, but this benefit must be weighed against the risks of toxic and allergic reactions, emergence of resistant bacteria, adverse drug interactions, superinfection and cost. Medical Letter consultants generally recommend antimicrobial prophylaxis only for procedures with high infection rates, those involving implantation of prosthetic material, and those in which the consequences of infection are likely to be especially serious.
Treat Guidel Med Lett. 2004 Apr;2(20):27-32 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Drugs for Peptic Ulcers

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • February 1, 2004;  (Issue 18)
Most peptic ulcers not caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with infection of the gastric mucosa by the gram-negative bacilli Helicobacter pylori. The majority of NSAID-related...
Most peptic ulcers not caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with infection of the gastric mucosa by the gram-negative bacilli Helicobacter pylori. The majority of NSAID-related ulcers are gastric. H. pylori infection causes both duodenal and gastric ulcers. Eradication of H. pylori promotes healing and markedly decreases recurrence of both duodenal and gastric ulcers (A Shiotamni and DY Graham, Med Clin North Am 2002; 86:1447; FKL Chan and WK Leung, Lancet 2002; 360:933). The first step in the management of peptic ulcers is the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori.
Treat Guidel Med Lett. 2004 Feb;2(18):7-12 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Minimal Surgery for Treatment of GERD

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • September 1, 2003;  (Issue 1164)
Laparoscopic surgery has become increasingly popular for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The usual surgical procedure, a Nissen fundoplication, prevents reflux into the esophagus. The...
Laparoscopic surgery has become increasingly popular for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The usual surgical procedure, a Nissen fundoplication, prevents reflux into the esophagus. The review compares medical treatment with a proton pump inhibitor vs. surgical therapy as well as open vs. the new laparoscopic technique. Morbidity and mortality with the procedures are discussed.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2003 Sep 1;45(1164):69-70 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Over-the-counter Omeprazole (Prilosec OTC)

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • August 4, 2003;  (Issue 1162)
The FDA recently approved the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole magnesium (Prilosec OTC) for over-the-counter use for treatment of frequent heartburn. It will be marketed in late September or early October. Five...
The FDA recently approved the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole magnesium (Prilosec OTC) for over-the-counter use for treatment of frequent heartburn. It will be marketed in late September or early October. Five proton pump inhibitors, including omeprazole, are available by prescription in the US (Medical Letter 2001; 43:36).
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2003 Aug 4;45(1162):61-2 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Drugs for Rheumatoid Arthritis

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • January 1, 2003;  (Issue 5)
Many different drugs are now used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), listed in the table on page 26, have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, but may not affect...
Many different drugs are now used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), listed in the table on page 26, have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, but may not affect the disease process. Corticosteroids can provide rapid relief of joint symptoms and control of systemic manifestations, but chronic use is associated with many complications. The "disease-modifying" anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), listed on page 29, have no immediate analgesic effects, but can control symptoms and may delay progression of the disease (American College of Rheumatology Subcommittee on Rheumatoid Arthritis Guidelines, Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46:328). Interactions of anti-rheumatic drugs with other drugs are listed in The Medical Letter Handbook of Adverse Drug Interactions, 2003.
Treat Guidel Med Lett. 2003 Jan;1(5):25-32 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Pantoprazole IV (Protonix IV)

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • April 29, 2002;  (Issue 1129)
An IV formulation of pantoprazole sodium (Protonix IV - Wyeth-Ayerst), a benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor (PPI), has been approved by the FDA for short-term treatment of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES) and...
An IV formulation of pantoprazole sodium (Protonix IV - Wyeth-Ayerst), a benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor (PPI), has been approved by the FDA for short-term treatment of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in patients who cannot take oral drugs. Pantoprazole is the first PPI to be approved for IV use in the US.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2002 Apr 29;44(1129):41-2 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Esomeprazole (Nexium)

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • April 30, 2001;  (Issue 1103)
Esomeprazole magnesium (Nexium - AstraZeneca), the S-isomer of omeprazole (Prilosec), is the fifth benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor to become available in the United States. Omeprazole, which was the first,...
Esomeprazole magnesium (Nexium - AstraZeneca), the S-isomer of omeprazole (Prilosec), is the fifth benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor to become available in the United States. Omeprazole, which was the first, is going off patent this year.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2001 Apr 30;43(1103):36-7 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Pantroprazole (Protonix)

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • July 24, 2000;  (Issue 1083)
Pantoprazole, the fourth benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor to become available in the United States, has been marketed for short-term oral treatment of erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease...
Pantoprazole, the fourth benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor to become available in the United States, has been marketed for short-term oral treatment of erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2000 Jul 24;42(1083):65-6 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Drugs For Rheumatoid Arthritis

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • July 10, 2000;  (Issue 1082)
Many different drugs are now used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, but may not affect the disease process. The...
Many different drugs are now used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, but may not affect the disease process. The "disease-modifying anti-rheumatic"drugs (DMARDs) have no immediate analgesic effects, but can control symptoms and may delay progression of the disease.
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2000 Jul 10;42(1082):57-64 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Rabeprazole

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • November 19, 1999;  (Issue 1066)
Rabeprazole, a benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor similar to omeprazole and lansoprazole, has been approved by the FDA for treatment of duodenal ulcers, healing and maintenance treatment of erosive or...
Rabeprazole, a benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor similar to omeprazole and lansoprazole, has been approved by the FDA for treatment of duodenal ulcers, healing and maintenance treatment of erosive or ulcerative gastroesophageal reflux disease, and for long-term treatment of chronic hypersecretory conditions, including Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1999 Nov 19;41(1066):110-2 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction

Drugs for Treatment of Peptic Ulcers

   
The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics • January 3, 1997;  (Issue 991)
Most peptic ulcers not caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are now thought to be associated with infection of the gastric mucosa by the gram-negative bacilli Helicobacter pylori. The...
Most peptic ulcers not caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are now thought to be associated with infection of the gastric mucosa by the gram-negative bacilli Helicobacter pylori. The majority of NSAID-related ulcers are gastric. H. pylori have been associated with both duodenal and gastric ulcers. Eradication of H. pylori promotes healing and markedly decreases recurrence of both duodenal and gastric ulcers (AH Soll, JAMA, 275:622, 1996).
Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1997 Jan 3;39(991):1-4 | Show Full IntroductionHide Full Introduction