Many drugs can cause psychiatric symptoms, but a causal connection is often difficult to establish. Psychiatric symptoms that emerge during drug treatment could also be due to the underlying illness, previously unrecognized psychopathology, or psychosocial factors. The withdrawal of some drugs can cause symptoms such as anxiety, psychosis, delirium, agitation or depression.
THE TABLES — The following tables list some drug classes and some specific drugs reported to cause psychiatric symptoms. Such symptoms are reported uncommonly with most of the drugs listed. Alcohol, hallucinogens and other drugs not generally used for medical treatment in the US are not included. Withdrawal reactions in patients dependent on opioids and physiological reactions to drugs such as insulin have also been omitted. The table is limited to psychiatric symptoms reported with single drugs, but drug interactions can also cause such symptoms (The Medical Letter Adverse Drug Interactions Program). Recent references and a few older ones are cited; additional older references are available in an earlier issue.1